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Foundations of Science

From Flask to Vat: The Challenges of Scaling Up Gene Therapy

From Flask to Vat: The Challenges of Scaling Up Gene Therapy

From Flask to Vat: The Challenges of Scaling Up...

Over the past two decades, gene therapy has been incubating at a very small scale in academic research labs. Like a chef fine-tuning a new recipe, scientists have been working in single batches that would only be sufficient to treat one or two patients at a time....

Hope in Translation: Bringing Gene Therapy to the Clinic

Hope in Translation: Bringing Gene Therapy to the Clinic

Hope in Translation: Bringing Gene Therapy to...

In 1987, scientists first uncovered the gene that is the target of mutations that causes Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), a lethal muscle-wasting disease that affects about one in every 5,000 newborn boys. While the discovery of...

The Evolution of Inflammation

The Evolution of Inflammation

The Evolution of Inflammation

Hunting wooly mammoths with stone age technology took guts. If the archaeological record is to be believed, it also took an incredible ability to bounce back from serious injuries. ...

What is Green Chemistry?

What is Green Chemistry?

What is Green Chemistry?

The way contemporary chemists work is a lot different than the way their predecessors worked only a few generations ago. You might think that the change is due to new technologies or breakthroughs in scientific understanding, but that’s only partly right. One of the major reasons chemistry is...

The Good, the Bad and the Strange of Physical Pain

The Good, the Bad and the Strange of Physical Pain

The Good, the Bad and the Strange of Physical...

Most people struggle with pain at some point in their life, and when it gets bad enough it can be a debilitating condition. However, while pain has its obvious and sometimes devastating downside, our ability to feel physical pain is also part of maintaining our health. For a time, physicians even...

Inside the Toxicology Lab: From Guardians of the Genome to Bottleneck Breakers and Beyond

Inside the Toxicology Lab: From Guardians of the Genome to Bottleneck Breakers and Beyond

Inside the Toxicology Lab: From Guardians of...

When it comes to creating new medicines, the stories that most often reach the public are the discoveries of new biological pathways or novel compounds. But in the nearly decade-long journey a medicine takes to get from the lab to patients, drug safety studies are an integral, though often behind...

The Goldilocks of the Elements: Why Iron Levels Have to Be ‘Just Right’

The Goldilocks of the Elements: Why Iron Levels Have to Be ‘Just Right’

The Goldilocks of the Elements: Why Iron Levels...

Iron is an essential part of the biologic operating manual for organisms from single-celled bacteria up to complex human beings. But iron also has a dark side: Because of its capacity to turn molecules into free radicals that can damage cell membranes and DNA, too much iron can be as dangerous as...

A Superbug Problem: When Routine Surgeries Turn Dangerous

A Superbug Problem: When Routine Surgeries Turn Dangerous

A Superbug Problem: When Routine Surgeries Turn...

You go in for an elective knee replacement surgery, hoping to be able to climb the stairs again without pain, and end up with more than you bargained for: a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus (also referred to as S. aureus, Staphylococcus, or staph...

Get to Know the T-Team: The Immune System’s Special Defenders

Get to Know the T-Team: The Immune System’s Special Defenders

Get to Know the T-Team: The Immune System’s...

In our immune system — the body’s security force against infection — T-cells are like the “special-ops” team. These elite defenders are tailored to fight specific pathogens. But T-cells are not only fascinating for their germ-busting abilities. They’re also actively involved in the development of...

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